Works Collected by Theo and Vincent van Gogh

Paintings and Drawings

Arnold Koning

The Dutch artist Arnold Koning (1860–1945) was twenty-seven years old when he arrived in Paris in September 1887. Like many artists at the time, he must have wanted to make this trip to see the latest developments in painting with his own eyes and to further his own artistic skills. He encountered modern art in the city’s art galleries, notably at Boussod, Valadon & Cie on boulevard Montmartre, where Theo van Gogh (1857–1891) worked as branch manager (gérant). It was there that Koning first met Theo and, through him, Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890), becoming friends with both brothers. Vincent and Koning were much in each other’s company in Paris, painting side by side during Vincent’s final months there. After Vincent’s departure for Arles in February 1888, Koning lived with Theo from mid-March until his return to the Netherlands in late May. No fewer than eighteen works of art and a number of letters in the Van Gogh Museum’s collection testify to Koning’s friendship with both Vincent and Theo.

Theo and Vincent’s personal collection includes four cityscapes and four portraits by Koning, believed to have been made during his time in Paris: View of Rue du Mont-Cenis, Montmartre (s0239), The Blute-fin Mill in Montmartre (s0240), Jardin du Luxembourg (s0242), View of Rue Cortot, Montmartre (s0270), Profile of a Woman (s0244), Profile of a Woman (s0245), Profile of a Maidservant (s0246) and Profile of a Woman (s0246). In the summer following his stay in Paris, Koning painted numerous landscapes in Drenthe province and in the Veluwe region in the Netherlands, and he sent some of these works to Theo, seeking his opinion, in September 1888. Six Dutch landscapes presumably ended up in the collection in this way: Moonlit Landscape (s0264), Landscape with a Farmhouse (s0266), Farmhouse in a Landscape (s0267), Farmhouses and Vegetable Gardens (s0268), Farmhouse in a Landscape (s0269) and Landscape (s0281). Additionally, the collection contains three watercolours believed to be directly related to the painted landscapes as well as a drawing dating from before Koning’s sojourn in Paris: Landscape (d0679), Farmhouse (d0680), Landscape with Farmhouse (d0681) and Interior Scene (d0670).

What came before

Although Koning was initially destined to pursue a career as a lawyer in his father’s footsteps, his ambitions lay elsewhere. In 1880 he received permission from his parents to apply to the Rijksakademie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam. Among his fellow students that year were Jan Toorop (1858–1928), Jan Veth (1864–1925) and Antoon Derkinderen (1859–1925). While Koning received a formal academic education, it was the work of painters from the Hague School, and artists such as George Hendrik Breitner (1857–1923), that shaped his artistic development, and he would remain indebted to them throughout his career. In his later correspondence with Vincent van Gogh, it becomes evident that Koning deeply admired the brothers Jacob (1837–1899), Willem (1844–1910) and Matthijs Maris (1839–1917), Jozef Israëls (1824–1911), Anton Mauve (1838–1888) as well as Breitner. Koning expressed his indebtedness to the latter in a letter to Theo.

After graduating in 1885, Koning settled in The Hague in the summer of 1886, where he lived with his youngest brother, Edzard (1869–1954), who in the meantime had also chosen the artistic profession. Koning’s membership of the artists’ association Pulchri Studio gave him several opportunities to exhibit work, including at Arti et Amicitiae in Amsterdam. Starting in 1886, he participated in the Exhibition of Living Masters (Tentoonstelling van Levende Meesters) for several years in a row. Koning decided to head to Paris just when he was beginning to make a name for himself in the Dutch art world. Shortly after his departure, even the Parisian art dealer Siegfried Bing bought one of his works at the Exhibition of Living Masters in Amsterdam.

Arnold Koning and Vincent van Gogh

Koning’s acquaintance with Vincent van Gogh likely took place shortly after Koning’s arrival in Paris in September 1887. Indeed, a few months later he was among the artists who participated in the group exhibition Peintres du Petit Boulevard, organized by Van Gogh. Held at the Grand Bouillon-Restaurant du Chalet in Montmartre in November–December, it exclusively featured artists from Van Gogh’s immediate circle of friends, and Koning thus already appeared to be one of them. In his recollection of the exhibition, Emile Bernard (1868–1941) mentioned that Koning had displayed ‘chromate yellow and vermillion red apples’. This is remarkable since hardly any still lifes by Koning are known.

Koning and Van Gogh spent a considerable amount of time together in the period between their initial meeting and Vincent’s departure for Arles on 19 February 1888. In 1912, at the request of Albert Plasschaert, an art critic who compiled anecdotes from people who had known Van Gogh personally, Koning penned his recollections of his time with Vincent. He mentioned that he had to adjust to Van Gogh’s distinctive work: ‘however, I could not at all reconcile with what he [Van Gogh] was making, the initial shock having been too great’. According to Koning, he lived in Theo’s apartment for a while with Vincent, which brought them even closer together: ‘From Theodoor, who moved closer to his business, I rented half of the upstairs floor, and was slowly drawn into Vincent’s mindset. He never ceased talking about his work and his ideas about colour.’ Apart from Koning’s observation, there are no indications that Theo lived elsewhere at the time.

The close connection between the two artists may have stemmed from some striking similarities. Both shared a Protestant upbringing in a rural setting and felt a deep connection to peasant life, the central theme in their art. Additionally, the Dutch artists Koning admired were also important to Van Gogh, and both were familiar with the art scenes in The Hague and Amsterdam. Koning, described as ‘unaffected and somewhat temperamental’ and as someone who ‘did not care about outward appearances’, likely found common ground with Van Gogh in these aspects as well.

Van Gogh undoubtedly took the lead in the artistic exchange between him and Koning during those months. Not only was he seven years older but, more importantly, by the autumn of 1887 he had already spent a considerable amount of time in Paris, undergone substantial artistic growth and established a strong network of fellow artists. There is no discernible influence from Koning on Van Gogh’s work during that period, who was then creating very colourful and modern pieces such as Quinces, Lemons, Pears and Grapes (September–October 1887, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam) and Self-Portrait as Painter (December 1887–February 1888, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam). Conversely, Koning’s Paris paintings closely align with Van Gogh’s early Parisian works, such as Path in Montmartre (April–May 1886) , which he had ample opportunity to study in Theo and Vincent’s home.

Vincent van Gogh, Path in Montmartre, April–May 1886, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam (Vincent van Gogh Foundation)

Vincent van Gogh, Path in Montmartre, April–May 1886, oil on cardboard, 22.2 × 16.3 cm, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam (Vincent van Gogh Foundation)

The four cityscapes

Other than the four cityscapes and four portraits by Koning in the Van Gogh Museum’s collection, hardly any work from his time in Paris can be traced, apart from several sketchy drawings. The cityscapes stand out as the most direct evidence of his stay there, with three of the four being views of Montmartre. Van Gogh showed Koning around this part of the city, as Koning later recalled: ‘We had beautiful things close by. Montmartre was still an El Dorado then, and Vincent was always found sitting somewhere in the sunshine, with his work and his pipe, either at the brickworks or painting a woman at a vegetable stall. […] Montmartre, our house, and our eateries, meanwhile, remained the three major points of attraction.’ Like Van Gogh, Koning also captured the picturesque windmills and staircases that were so characteristic of the hill. In the course of this research, the exact locations depicted in Koning’s paintings have been identified for the first time, and these are now included in the works’ titles. They are the Blute-Fin mill, icon of Montmartre, and views of rue Cortot and rue du Mont-Cenis.

As was his wont, Koning probably painted the four cityscapes en plein air. Their modest size supports this assumption; moreover, they are not carefully elaborated pieces. Of all the works by Koning in the collection, The Blute-fin Mill in Montmartre (s0240) relates most directly to Van Gogh’s work. He will doubtless have been inspired by the no fewer than twelve drawings and paintings Van Gogh had already made at this location. This seventeenth-century mill sat atop Montmartre hill and was part of the large entertainment complex known as Le Moulin de la Galette, which included folk cafés (guinguettes), gardens and a dance hall. For his portrayal of the famous mill, Koning selected virtually the same spot that Van Gogh had for two particular paintings and a drawing.

Koning’s mill offers a rather swiftly painted impression that therefore does not precisely mirror real life. For instance, he depicted only eleven steps when in reality there were many more, as is evident in Van Gogh’s much more accurate drawing and painting from autumn 1886 ( and ). Van Gogh also provides a better impression of the two-part wooden gate used to close off the entertainment area. The small building in the right foreground of Koning’s composition was a small pub. However, in Koning’s case the popular attraction is devoid of visitors, with not a single person in sight – a notable contrast to Van Gogh’s vivid final depiction of this spot (). In Koning’s painting, the sky is overcast with pink undertones, lending the scene a warm ambience. The canvas texture shines through the brushstrokes in the sky. The most pastose passages include the vegetation on either side of the stairs and the banister on the right. The typical Parisian street lamp and the French tricolour flag flying atop the mill are applied in such an undefined manner that they blend into the background.

Koning also made cityscapes in Amsterdam, The Hague and Dordrecht both before and after his time in Paris: in short, he was at home in the genre. His artistic style did not undergo a radical transformation in Paris. For example, the colour palette and paint treatment in the cityscapes in the Van Gogh Museum are quite similar to those in Harbour in Dordrecht with Hooded Crow (View of Hooikade) (c. 1887), which he made not long before going to Paris . Typically, Koning’s cityscapes incorporate the occasional figure and often feature some brightly coloured elements in an otherwise subdued palette. His rather coarse painting style is more closely related to Breitner than to Van Gogh. View of Rue du Mont-Cenis, Montmartre (s0239) differs the most from his earlier works because of the pronounced brushwork, which is remarkably pastose for Koning.

View of Rue Cortot, Montmartre (s0270) has only recently been attributed to Koning, thanks to the research conducted for this entry. Several factors support this attribution. To begin with, the choice of subject matter – a view of one of Montmartre’s many picturesque streets devoid of additional activity – aligns with Koning’s other cityscapes. The colour palette is consistent with his style, as can be seen in The Blute-fin Mill in Montmartre (s0240) and Jardin du Luxembourg (s0242). The brushwork, too, is typical of Koning, who preferred to use a broad brush even in his smaller pictures, showcasing an economical approach. Here, with just a few strokes, he suggested the sunlit parts of the city wall. Another hallmark of Koning’s style is his talent for structuring the representation with a few clear elements. In his landscapes, these are often the tree trunks. In The Blute-fin Mill in Montmartre (s0240) it is the banisters, and in View of Rue Cortot, Montmartre (s0270) the buttresses. Technical research may be able to confirm or refute this attribution.

Finally, Koning captured the iconic city park Jardin du Luxembourg (s0242), demonstrating that his range extended beyond Montmartre. Notably, it is the only one of the four cityscapes he signed. Once again, it is loosely painted; he settled for a concise yet apt impression of the marble statue of a lion. The lively atmosphere of metropolitan Paris also comes across well in the work. The park is bustling with passers-by, captured in just a few brushstrokes, and high-rise buildings are visible in the background to the right. The trees are full of autumn-coloured foliage, indicating that it was painted at the outset of Koning’s stay, in the autumn of 1887.

The four portraits

In addition to the cityscapes, the collection contains four portraits of women, which Koning painted during his time in Paris. It should be noted that few portraits by Koning are known, making this series quite special within his overall body of work. Profile of a Maidservant (s0245) is not only signed but also bears the location and date ‘Paris 1887’. While Koning frequently signed his works, he rarely dated them. Profile of a Woman (s0243) with its blue background and the accompanying study s0244 are also signed, while Profile of a Woman (s0246) against a brown-red background is not. Van Gogh was familiar with at least one of the three depictions of the Black woman, about which he commented positively in a letter to Theo. From his remark, moreover, it appears that Theo had at least one of these three paintings in his possession even before Koning’s departure from Paris. This fact may also explain that Koning provided two of them with his signature.

Koning’s interest in portraying people of colour was not new, as is evidenced by the earlier finely painted Fruit Seller . He exhibited this ambitious piece shortly after graduating from the arts association Pictura in Groningen. A few drawings of people of colour by his hand are also known. The three portraits in Theo and Vincent’s collection seem to have been primarily colour studies, of which Profile of a Woman (s0243) is particularly successful. The richly coloured pink, yellow and turquoise headscarf stands out all the more against the deep blue background. The light falling on the woman’s face is skilfully captured, with highlights in a light blue-green hue on her dark skin. Although there is no source to support this assumption, the same woman likely posed for Profile of a Woman (s0246), set against a brownish-red background. In this version, her face is deliberately shrouded in darkness because this time Koning positioned his model away from the light source. The colourful headscarf is less meticulously painted and the earring, which shines in the portrait against the blue background, is merely hinted at as a shadow in this version.

Arnold Koning, Fruit Seller, 1886,  oil on canvas, 113 × 79 cm, Drents Museum, Assen Donated by the Stichting Schone kunsten rond 1900

Arnold Koning, Fruit Seller, 1886, oil on canvas, 113 × 79 cm, Drents Museum, Assen. Donated by the Stichting Schone kunsten rond 1900

Nothing is known about the woman’s identity. In all likelihood, Koning will have asked her to model for him for a fee. A similar arrangement probably applied to the maid in Profile of a Maidservant (s0245), whose identity is also impossible to ascertain. Her distinctive headdress betrays her occupation. In this instance, Koning opted for a yellow background, using it to broadly contour her profile. The sharply delineated profile lends these four portraits their mutual affinity. The works were surely made as part of a single small campaign. This choice was not unusual for Koning, as he employed a similar approach for a likeness of his brother Edzard, and the same can be observed in several of his drawings .

Correspondence between Van Gogh, Theo and Koning

Van Gogh left for Arles in late February 1888, and Koning, as mentioned, moved in with Theo in mid-March. Van Gogh believed that this shared living arrangement would be beneficial for both of them. In his letters to Theo from the period in mid-March to the end of May, Vincent mentions Koning numerous times. He was clearly fond of Koning and wrote to him upon hearing from Theo that he was planning to leave Paris: ‘Well, old chap, I’ll often think about our being together in Paris […]. If you should come back next year, come and have a look around here too. I wish you could see the colour here.’ Theo bid farewell to their friend at the Gare du Nord on 28 May 1888. Koning left the city, in particular Montmartre, with a heavy heart: ‘The thought of leaving the metropolis I had become so attached to and enjoyed so much kept me awake all night, and when I was finally on the train and watched Montmartre gradually disappear into the distance, my heart ached a little.’

While the Van Goghs held their friend Koning in high regard, they were not particularly impressed by his artistic prowess. For instance, Theo wrote to his sister Willemien (1862–1941) that Koning was ‘not nearly as talented’ as Vincent. Vincent indirectly informed Theo that Koning was not very remarkable. Nevertheless, Vincent was happy to exchange work with him, as he did with many other artists. This was an effective way of expanding the brothers’ art collection. Talks of an art exchange between Koning and Vincent began when Koning was still living with Theo in Paris, and these discussions continued even after Koning had returned to the Netherlands. In April 1888, in a letter to Theo, Vincent offered two of his drawings in exchange for one of Koning’s studies. However, the enclosed drawings, Orchard with Arles in the Background (April 1888, The Hyde Collection, Glens Falls) and Provençal Orchard (March–April 1888, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam), did not end up with Koning.

We know that Koning was willing to make the exchange from a letter he wrote to Theo when he had just returned to the Netherlands: ‘I will send you something soon, then you can pick out something to exchange with Vincent there. I would prefer one painted study instead of the two drawings, if that would suit him.’ Even though Van Gogh had previously indicated to Theo that he did not mind making a painting available, the exchange never seems to have taken place. Van Gogh revisited the matter in January 1889, wondering whose fault this was: ‘I’ve seen absolutely nothing of your studies sent to Theo (I believe), despite urging you to make an exchange. Is this to do with Theo, who possibly had other things on his mind, or with the not inconsiderable distance between us?’ There is no indication whatsoever that Koning ever possessed any of Van Gogh’s works.

The September 1888 shipment

The studies Van Gogh refers to are paintings that Koning had sent to Theo in September 1888 to show his progress upon returning to the Netherlands. Six of them, landscapes, are still part of the collection: Moonlit Landscape (s0264), Landscape with a Farmhouse (s0266), Farmhouse in a Landscape (s0267), Farmhouses and Vegetable Gardens (s0268), Farmhouse in a Landscape (s0269) and Landscape (s0281). Koning had an exceptionally productive summer back in the Netherlands and informed Theo that this was due to his experiences in Paris, and Van Gogh’s influence in particular. In a letter to Van Gogh himself, five months later, he wrote: ‘I’m steadily extricating myself and paint despite the snags […]. According to what people are saying here, I’ve become very bold in my colour. My stay in Paris has brought about a wholesale reorganization as regards my thinking about the colours and their mutual relationship.’

In September, Koning informed Theo that he would send him several works: ‘I gathered the best of my studies, or paintings, as you might call them, this morning and will send them to you this very day. I have mainly chosen the ones on which I have put in the most work, and which the tony people here found the ugliest. It goes without saying that you are more than welcome to have this little lot as a gift from me. However, I would appreciate it if you could write to me about what you think, preferably not too many fancy words, then I will understand it better. If you were a proper Parisian aristocrat, I would have sent them to you differently: all stretched, neatly cleaned, varnished and in fine frames. But I don’t have money for all these frills, so you’ll get them as they were born.’ Although Koning gave the works as a gift, he obviously knew that Theo was an art dealer and may have hoped that he would take them on consignment. However, as far as is known, this did not happen.

A few days after Koning’s letter, he sent the following message: ‘As my studies were still a bit wet, I waited until this morning to pack them. I secured them as well as I could with slats and shipped them to your address, free of freight and duty charges. There are four of no. 10 [55-38], two of no. 8, and one of no. 6. You must have the four large ones framed upon arrival for I don’t have any frames left, and they make them so bulky and heavy here.’

It has always been unclear which paintings in the collection could be counted to this shipment and by extension what the provenance and dates are of the various works. The artist speaks of seven paintings, while there are fourteen in the collection. It is most plausible that the four female portraits and four cityscapes were all made in Paris, between September 1887 and May 1888, and remained there when Koning left Theo’s apartment. In September 1888, Koning sent Theo seven paintings to showcase his recent progress. The six landscapes will have been part of that shipment; the seventh work is no longer in the collection.

Koning mentioned new work, and artistic developments that he attributed to his stay in Paris. He also wrote to Theo, ‘I have never seen nature as beautiful as this summer’, suggesting that he was focused on landscapes. It is therefore assumed that he sent recently created landscapes, painted in Drenthe and the Veluwe region between June and September 1888, and that the six landscapes in the collection were part of this shipment. The sizes of these works of art correspond to the standard sizes Koning mentioned in his letter to Theo of 18 September 1888. He refers to four no. 10 size works in need of being stretched, implying that they were painted on canvas. Moonlit Landscape (s0264), Farmhouses and Vegetable Gardens (s0268) and Farmhouse in a Landscape (s0269) qualify for this particular size and are indeed painted on canvas; however, a fourth landscape of this size is missing. Landscape with a Farmhouse (s0266) and Farmhouse in a Landscape (s0267) are size no. 8, while Koning will have meant the small Landscape (s0281) on panel as of size no. 6. In any case, a letter from Van Gogh indicates that Theo had several of Koning’s landscapes in his house. Van Gogh must have seen these works during his brief visits to his brother in Paris in mid-May or early July 1890.

The seventh painting, a no. 10 size canvas, which must have been part of the shipment, is no longer in the collection. There is no indication that Theo ever sold or gave away Koning’s works. However, we do know that after Theo’s death in 1891 a number of works vanished from the collection. It is entirely within the realm of possibility that a painting by Koning left the collection, either during Theo’s lifetime or after his death. The only other work painted on canvas that could be considered here, owing to its size, is Profile of a Woman (s0243). This would imply that Koning initially brought it with him from Paris and later sent it back. Alternatively, he might have created it in the Netherlands based on the study Profile of a Woman (s0244).

The landscapes

Farmhouses were Koning’s favourite subject throughout his artistic career. He created hundreds of landscapes featuring agricultural buildings. Brimming with his experiences in Paris, he was particularly inspired in the summer of 1888 and painted prolifically in Drenthe and the Veluwe region, outdoors on the heathland. In his own words, he tried to arrive at an ‘original conception’ during this period and experienced ‘a wholesale reorganization as regards […] colours’.

Compared to Koning’s earlier landscapes, this series of six is indeed quite colourful, and the palette is less subdued than what we find in the Paris cityscapes. What is striking is the way Koning painted the skies. In particular, they are more colourful and more pastose than usual. The pink hue he used for the cloudy skies, as seen in Farmhouses and Vegetable Gardens (s0268), evokes the skies in some of Van Gogh’s works from Paris in 1886, especially View of Paris .

Vincent van Gogh, View of Paris, June–July 1886, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam (Vincent van Gogh Foundation)

Vincent van Gogh, View of Paris, June–July 1886, oil on canvas, 53.9 × 72.8 cm, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam (Vincent van Gogh Foundation)

These landscapes have the quality of studies, which is what Koning called them in a letter to Van Gogh. They seem to be a series, supporting the notion that they were sent together in the same shipment to Theo. Upon closer inspection, they appear to be a sequence of variations on the same farm complex, each time from a different vantage point, closer or further away; the complex is also possibly concealed behind the bushes in Landscape (s0281).

Three watercolours and an early drawing

There is no information available about how and when the three watercolours Landscape (d0679), Farmhouse (d0680) and Landscape with Farmhouse (d0681) found their way into Theo and Vincent’s collection. Koning’s correspondence with the Van Gogh brothers makes no mention of them. Nevertheless, it is very likely that these three watercolours were created concurrently with the painted landscapes and were sent to Theo at some point following Koning’s time in Paris. They are unmistakably by Koning and bear a striking resemblance to these paintings.

Once again, the recurring theme is the flat Dutch landscape, the expansive cloudy sky and the farmhouse. The paintings Landscape with a Farmhouse (s0266) and Farmhouse in a Landscape (s0269) correspond to the watercolour Landscape with a Farmhouse (d0681). In fact, they seem to depict the same farmhouse. There are also remarkable parallels between Moonlit Landscape (s0264) and Landscape (d0679). While the watercolour lacks moonlight, the composition, particularly the horizon featuring buildings and woodland, as well as the coarser vegetation in the foreground, bear striking resemblances.

Finally, in Theo and Vincent’s former collection is a drawing, Interior Scene (d0670), which is signed as well as dated. Curiously, the signature and the date are each inscribed with a different pen. The subject of the depiction consists of two figures in a space that is part of a farmstead; possibly it is a churn barn, given that a butter churn is depicted on the right. It is likely that Koning took this drawing, dated 1885, with him from the Netherlands to Paris and that it remained there, rather than being sent later. Accordingly, it is the earliest piece by Koning in the collection.

France nevermore

Koning’s correspondence reveals his intention to visit Paris again, and possibly Arles. However, Vincent fell ill and wrote to Theo that he no longer wished to encourage Koning to come to the South of France. Theo, in turn, was living with his wife Jo after their marriage in April 1889 and could therefore no longer accommodate him. There was a brief discussion of Koning staying with another Dutch artist in Paris, however this never came to fruition. Presumably, financial constraints played a role, and Koning decided to concentrate on his career in the Netherlands. Koning would never return to France. He would always cherish his time in Paris with Vincent: ‘In my memory, however, Vincent van Gogh continues to live on as someone to whom I am deeply indebted, not only for his artistic expression but also for his greatness as a person.’

Lisa Smit
January 2024

Oda van Maanen, paintings conservator at the Van Gogh Museum, conducts technical research on Koning’s works in the collection. Her preliminary insights have made a significant contribution to this publication, for which I am very grateful. I extend my sincere thanks to Nicolaas Reinhoud, collector of and expert on the work of Arnold Koning and his brother Edzard Koning, for generously sharing his insights. Given the scarcity of art historical literature on Koning, this was all the more valuable. I am also indebted to Matthijs Andreas and Kathelijne Jongeling for providing me with the opportunity to examine the extensive collection of paintings, drawings and sketchbooks from Koning’s estate, in the collection of the Municipality of Barneveld. This collection, donated in 1980 by F. D. Carels, the nephew of D. J. Koning-Hopster, Koning’s second wife, allowed for a broader understanding of the works in the Van Gogh Museum in the context of Koning’s entire artistic career.


Lisa Smit, ‘Paintings and Drawings by Arnold Koning’, catalogue entry in Contemporaries of Van Gogh 1: Works Collected by Theo and Vincent, Joost van der Hoeven (ed.), Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum, 2024.

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